The latest version of Ubuntu incorporates the venerable LTSP project in an interesting way -- any chroot environment can be configured as an environment to be PXEBooted. Since PXEBoot has been built into every consumer machine for five years, many new things are possible.
LTSP is designed to be a way that ancient desktops and modern thin clients can be configured to save money on the point-of-access. This new facility means that much more can be done with it. Understanding how requires a bit of explaining.
A chroot environment is a configuration in Linux where the user can (CH)ange the (ROOT) directory to some subdirectory of the current computer. It's used in services to isolate a particular service or user's environment so that they can't access things they're not supposed to. It's like a limited virtual machine. It can be configured the same way as a normal environment would -- with local applications, events, all the usual stuff.
LTSP extends this by building the chroot environment into an image file that a booting machine can use as its own real environment. By controlling the chroot environments issued to various machines based on MAC address (an address unique to the machine or network card) one can assign a specific chroot environment to a particular machine. This allows the LTSP to issue a thin client linux to ancient computers that deliver a modern experience using the server's greater computation power. It also allows the system to send special environments based on the client's architecture. PowerPC Macintosh computers require a special one, as do some others. You can even PXE boot a virtual machine -- so as to leverage virtualization technologies and server consolidation dynamically. A controller process can be configured to monitor loads on your network at dynamically launch virtual machines to handle the loads as the need requires.
It has been possible for some time to build a redundant architecture for every common service that uses various network and software methods to assign work for one service to multiple servers. By leveraging this PXE boot, specific environments for specific services, and assigning machines to service tasks via MAC addresses it's possible to create a redundant architecture to provide all of these services that scales to any size.
This changes a great deal in infrastructure design. Every server can round-robin to whatever server is available. When services are slow: add another server to the list that receive the image for that service and boot it. It will automagically configure itself to receive a share of the load and serve clients. Need more power in your render cluster? Buy as many render nodes as you need and PXE Boot them -- no touch configuration. A node fails? That's fine. It's all redundant. Swap it out and move on. Even the LTSP servers themselves can be made redundant in this way, so that as long as one persists the architecture will survive.
What I think is cool about this: You can build the most powerful render cluster in the world without writing even a single line of code. That's right - the programmer-free cluster. It's all off the shelf hardware and software.
Over the next few weeks I'll be building a render cluster using cheap equipment. Watch this space to see what I can do with it.